Adapting a Past, Present, and Future Mindset

Many of us have been informed of the importance to live in the present moment, to forget the past, and to stop worrying about the future. While these suggestions are usually met with good intention and considered to be fairly good advice, this type of thinking is actually only relevant during certain circumstances. In a given situation, it might in fact be more important to consider your past, or place a greater emphasis on thinking about the future rather than the present moment.

If this seems contradicting to what you typically hear about in the mindfulness media, you’re right, it is. But I’d like to shed some light on the often mis-conceptualized idea of always “living in the moment” and instead give evidence as to when you might benefit from spending time more so in a past or future context.   

Let’s first look into how the past, present, and future orientations are defined.

The Past

A “past” mindset is often characterized by nostalgic memories and pleasurable views of previous family and friend relationships, with happiness seeming to derive from warm, personal interactions. However, with one’s past also comes the chance of holding onto negative emotions, thoughts and feelings, anxieties, sorrows that we may experience in life. Additionally, there are also cultural differences when having a “past” mindset. For instance, from a Western (American) perspective, the “past” orientation can produce a conservative, cautious approach to life with an unwillingness to experience new things. This is often thought of as a negative mindset. From an Eastern (Asian, Indigenous) perspective, paying attention to the past might ensure the passing down of traditions and rituals from generation to generation. This instead is viewed as a positive mindset to have.

The Present

When describing a person who lives in the here and now from a Western perspective, one typically derives pleasure from highly intense activities, thrills and excitements, and is open to adventures of the moment, often placing value on experiences of present gratification. This approach could sometimes be harmful and detrimental to the person and their future when “living in the moment” involves short-term pleasures like drugs, partying, risky driving, sexual encounters, etc. The Western perspective reflects the fact that a person may not necessarily think ahead about potential liabilities of such excitement activities.

When taking an Eastern perspective however, living in the moment may be centered on the concepts of calmness, meditation, flow, and mindfulness, and is not associated with potential detrimental effects on an individual or their future. It is more so interpreted as paying less attention to time as it relates to a clock, and instead view time as related to what is happening in the moment. In this way, the practice of being “mindful” from Eastern cultures is becoming more attractive to people in the West (Hence, the growing interest of adapting mindful practices, such as the advice and tips listed in the Mindfulness by Paula blog!).

The Future

A person with a future orientation often thinks ahead to the possible consequences of their actions, forms clear goals, and strategizes to reach those goals. They’re more likely to engage in preventative behaviours to lessen the chance of “bad” things happening in the future. Such people are typically successful in life’s endeavours- academics, jobs, sports, health, etc. Some future-mindset people however don’t experience a lot of pleasure from simply being with others or recalling previous social activities. Additionally, embracing a future orientation may not be viewed positively by all cultures.

Reading through these three perspectives, which one do you think you have? Chances are, we all take on a past, present, and future mindset at various times of the day and may switch between them during different situations of our lives.

Finding Balance

The key to having balance in these three perspectives of time is in your ability to use the mindset that best fits your situation. This means, “Working hard when it’s time to work. Playing intensively when it’s time to play. Actively listening and socializing with others while gathering together. Laughing at jokes and the craziness of life. Indulging in desire and passion” – as quoted by Boniwell and Zimbardo. Being flexible and capable of switching to an appropriate temporal perspective results in the most productive approach to how we spend our time.

Having said that, our cultural influences, societies, and communities may affect which mindset we think may be best to choose in a given scenario:

Western cultures tend to place a priority on mastering their future, emphasizing action or goal-oriented activities, and may be judged by what they do or accomplish, more so than by who they are as a person. They might be more focused on controlling their surrounding environment and place a great importance on planning for their future.

Eastern cultures tend to view time as a plentiful resource, with human relationships taking priority. They tend to view the self and other people as interrelated, placing importance on interdependence and interacting with people. A common view is that the experience of suffering is a necessary part of the human existence.

Considering the cultural context that may be applicable to you, it’s important to embrace a positive psychological mindset. One perspective may be ideal for you, but not for someone else. In the end, be true to yourself when thinking about which frame of mind to adapt in any point in time, whether that may be cherishing your past, learning to be mindful in the present, or having hope for the future.



Cultivating Optimism

Featuring a special guest on the blog today! He has a honours degree in life sciences with a double minor in psychology and kinesiology, is an avid athlete, a healthy living enthusiast, and happens to be the love of my life. Can you guess who? Read on for Ryan’s tips on cultivating optimism:

Considering the current pandemic, keeping a positive and optimistic mindset may seem more challenging than ever.

Optimism is defined as a very general belief that good life outcomes are more likely than bad ones in most situations. Pessimism, the opposite of optimism, is the belief that bad life outcomes are more likely in most situations.

The phenomenon of optimism has been studied extensively in the field of positive psychology, and the potential benefits are remarkable. Before getting into the benefits of optimism, lets take a step back and think about the role of optimism in on your life. Think about how you motivate yourself to reach your goals; you probably have at one point in your life said to yourself (or something along these lines) “I will reach my goals, I will be successful”. This is an example of optimism and is commonly used to self-motivate yourself to keep yourself on track to reach your goals. Optimism is commonly used in sports and is common belief among professional athletes. If you observe the attitude of some of the most successful athletes, you will notice they share the same thing in common – they are optimistic about outcomes. Take Mark Messier for example, one of the best hockey players of all time. On May 25th, 1994, Messier and the New York Rangers were trailing 3-2 to the New Jersey Devils in a best of 7 series in the Eastern Conference Finals. Earlier that day, messier told reporters “We will win tonight”. Subsequently, Messier and the rangers won that game forcing a game 7, where they would win the series, and eventually win the Stanley cup. While you may not consciously observe optimism regularly in your daily life, chances are it plays a significant role.

An optimistic outlook on life is associated with numerous benefits including the following:

  • Better academic performance
  • Superior athletic performance
  • More productive work records
  • Greater satisfaction in interpersonal relationships
  • More effective coping with life stressors
  • Lower vulnerability to depression and anxiety
  • Superior physical health

Maintaining optimistic beliefs may help mitigate the psychological consequences experienced from any social restrictions imposed during COVID-19.

Those who attain the optimism characteristic react to failures, stressors, and negative situations differently than their pessimistic counterparts. Particularly, they commonly reason with the following attributes:

  • Attributing failures to external causes: e.g. I did bad on the test because the questions were worded poorly.
  • Unstable causes: belief that things can and do change over time (e.g. I will do better on the next test.)
  • Specific causes: relating causes to specific situations, rather than global causes (e.g. I do better in other courses.)

Put the benefits of optimism to use by maintaining a positive outlook on the future and utilizing the attributes commonly used by optimists. While we all experience stress, agony, hardship, etc. remember to seek the positives and maintain an optimistic mindset.


Let’s Practice Mindfulness

Since we’re all spending a little bit more time indoors these days, what better thing to do than practice some self care? Many people are now becoming interested in mindfulness, and perhaps you have some unanswered questions about what mindfulness actually is, and how to make it part of your daily routine.

Mindfulness is defined as the meaningful moment-to-moment awareness of thoughts, feelings, body sensations, and the surrounding environment, and accepting it without judgment. With regular practice, mindfulness strengthens our mind to always come back to the present moment, setting aside our worries and stress about the past and future. What this means is essentially, we have the capacity to control how we live in this present moment.

Mindfulness has been studied for centuries, and it’s benefits are countless. For instance, mindfulness meditation is known to improve:

Amazingly, the latest research has also suggested that we have the power to literally change our brains by changing our minds! In one study, a group of people participated in 30 min of daily meditation for 8 weeks. Results indicated a greater density of grey matter in their brains- the region associated with functions such as memory, stress, and empathy.

Meditation in a sense has similar effects on the brain to what exercise has on the body!

How can YOU put mindfulness to practice? Here are a few easy suggestions to get started:

  • Begin to pay attention and recognize your thoughts and feelings
  • Allow your thoughts and feelings to simply be there in the present moment with you
  • Observe how these thoughts and feelings impact your body
  • Take time to nurture yourself

You could also practice mindfulness while eating: pay attention to how your food tastes, it’s texture, how it makes you feel, being appreciative of your meal.

Another idea is to practice mindfulness while socializing! Give someone your full attention, make sure to actively listen to them, and value the time with others in the present moment.

There are also many great apps that provide mindfulness tools and guided meditations. A few are listed below:



Insight timer

Let me know in the comments if you try including mindfulness practices in your daily life, and make sure to subscribe for more tips on mindful thinking, body love, and wholesome living.



Building Resilience

What does “resilience” mean to you?

Oxford dictionary defines resilience as the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties. Psychology further defines it as the process of adapting well in the face of adversity or a significant source of stress. Essentially, it’s our ability to “bounce back” from difficult situations, and can also result in profound personal growth. Everyone has a different experience and understanding of resilience, and what might seem stressful to one person may not necessarily be an issue for another.

Why do some people seem more resilient than others?

Many factors influence your current state of resiliency, including:

  • Psychological predisposition
  • Biological predisposition
  • Unique life experiences
  • Presence of supportive networks
  • Exercise
  • Mindfulness

What’s interesting though, is that our capacity to be resilient is not fixed! With some practice and dedication, we can train our minds to become more resilient.

Components that promote resilience include:

  • Good communication skills
  • Having a positive outlook on life
  • Good physical and mental health
  • Planning and goal setting
  • Being reasonable
  • Having a sense of humour
  • Having a sense of accomplishment
  • Ability to relax, take a break

If you’ve taken a look at the above list and identified a few areas that can be improved, you’re not alone. Together, we can overcome obstacles in our lives and come out of these challenges stronger than before!

Before we get caught up in trying to figure out how to be more resilient, let’s stop and just take 5 deep breaths, and take a moment to check in with yourself. Our lives can be so busy that we can forget to take a few moments and catch our breath. Our minds and bodies aren’t meant to deal with the constant stress that often leads to burnout. A key step in building resilience is finding time to let our minds and bodies recover, replenish, and restore our energy.

Research says that by simply taking slow deep breaths for as little as 30 seconds, we’re already switching to a calmer state within our nervous system. It’s amazing that we can consciously change our stress response (sympathetic system) to turn on our relaxation response (parasympathetic system). This lowers your breathing rate, heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety levels, while increasing feelings of calmness.

Other practices that can help us recover from stress may include:

  • Exercise
  • Going outside
  • Journaling
  • Eating nutritious food
  • Prioritizing sleep
  • Letting go of things you can’t control
  • Practicing an attitude of gratitude
  • Forgiving yourself and others
  • Taking regular breaks
  • Building a strong supportive network from friends and family

When responding to stressful situations, after “recovering”, it’s time to “renew”. What I mean by this, is to build regular positive habits that you enjoy and look forward to, and acknowledge that you need to do something to lift your spirits and energy levels. It’s important to live your values, make time for your passions, cultivate a positive relationship with yourself, become more patient and compassionate, and of course to always be kind to yourself.

Learn to change from simply reacting, to responding more mindfully, positively, and purposefully during difficult situations.

“Between stimulus and response, there’s a space. In that space is our power to choose our response. In our response lies our growth and our freedom” – Victor E. Frankl

Hope you stay well.



How to Generate Happiness

Let me start by asking you this, are you having a good day or a bad day? Why? Take a moment to think about it. Whether we have a good day or a bad day depends on our “why”.

What is happiness? Most scientists agree it’s our life satisfaction and positive affect, together known as “subjective wellbeing”.

What does happiness look like? When we think of happy people, often what comes to mind is people who are able to live in the moment, enjoy life everyday, regularly exercise, have hope for the future, are friendly and helpful, have strong social connections, able to cope with life challenges, have a strong sense of purpose, and so on.

What makes us happy? Scientists explain that 50% of our capacity to be happy is due to genetics, 40% due to our intentional activities, 10% due to life circumstances. So essentially, 40% of our happiness is entirely within our control. We can increase our choice to be happy more often and likewise take part in intentional activities that can make us feel happy. This in turn, can help change our path towards manifesting a happier life, therefore influencing that remaining 10% margin of our life circumstances. That means, it’s possible to convert 50% of our happiness capacity to within our own control. We have the ability to create happiness.

We often say, I’ll be happy when I graduate, when I get that job, when I have my own place… But it’s important to recognize that you can do things to feel happy today. Don’t wait for that when. Happiness is a choice and a mindset to practice everyday.

“Nothing changes if nothing changes” – Albert Einstein.

Here are a few suggestions on how to increase happiness:

  • Expressing gratitude (gratitude journaling, being thankful for the little things)
  • Practicing optimism (finding the positive in something negative)
  • Avoiding social comparison (comparison is the thief of joy!)
  • Performing acts of kindness
  • Nurturing relationships and social connections
  • Learning to forgive (let go of the past, consider writing a letter but not necessarily mailing it out!)
  • Savouring positive experiences (positive memories that make you smile, sharing a positive event with others, remembering the sound of the ocean)
  • Practicing self-care (regular exercise, eating healthy and mindfully, drinking enough water, meditation, etc.)

You are the only one in the way of generating your own happiness. Stay motivated everyday, and take small steps in a positive direction. In scientific terms, the more we stop and recognize positive moments all around us, the more we tap into neuroplasticity and use our prefrontal cortex to actively choose to be happy, and the less we use our amygdala- our reactive stress centre. We need to make happiness a priority in our lives.

Below are just a few of the benefits of being happy:

  • Strong immune systems
  • Rich networks of social support
  • Resilience during life challenges
  • Physically healthy
  • Longer life expectancy
  • Reported higher engagement at work
  • Increased self-esteem and self-confidence
  • And many more!

So what are you waiting for? Take a small first step: positive emotions help fuel more positive emotions, like a positive feedback loop. Some people find committing to self care and mindfulness practices at the beginning of the day can help set you up for an overall more positive, happy day. Recognize things that make you feel good and use those tools regularly when you notice you feel tense or stressed to actively control negative thoughts and feelings. Also, choose to focus less on creating happiness from materialistic things- happiness often comes from rather focusing on authentic, irreplaceable things in life like your health, social relationships, nature, and making positive memories.

I hope you find this useful and start to generate your own happiness!



Life beyond the surface

Lately I’ve been thinking…there’s got to be more to life than hustling towards a successful job, rushing around trying to get our to-do lists done, and trying to keep up with the expectations of society. Much focus of our current reality seems to be heavily placed on striving to get that perfect job, that perfect body, the latest technology, the best house, and a lot of this thinking is fuelled by big companies and the general economy that thrives on our addiction to materialism. All of these consistent thoughts telling us that we need to do better, make more, have more is bringing up our stress levels and bringing down our sense of satisfaction and happiness.

But let’s consider, what if in fact there is something more to life? Have we forgotten our sense of true purpose? A lot of us get caught up in a never-ending cycle of stress, work, and other obligations, not giving our minds and bodies the proper rest, care and relaxation they need. Our family relations, and interactions with friends and loved ones could use more time and dedication, but with the business of life, these things often take the back seat.

I’ve been giving this some thought, and I think now all of us been given that opportunity- to attend to all those “other” parts in our lives that might not always be priority, when we’re always focusing on working harder and getting ahead. Although not planned, and of course it not being the most ideal situation, this pandemic and the call to stay home from school, work, and other various outings, has provided us a chance to pause, decompress, let go of our usual busy routines. We have the chance to focus on what’s really the most important parts to our lives…our relationships with our loved ones, friends, family, and with ourselves, along with our physical, mental, and spiritual health.

So much of what brings us happiness stems from fostering meaningful, loving, authentic relationships with others. So much healing can happen when we look to take extra care of our bodies, minds, and spirituality. While you’re at home, and perhaps without your usual amount of responsibilities, consider spending this time enriching your relationships with your loved ones at home, connecting and socializing virtually with friends, and bringing attention to yourself, whether that’s doing some exercise, eating healthier, practicing meditation, or setting aside time for prayer.

As much as successful jobs, enormous houses, expensive cars, and the latest clothes, may bring temporary happiness- it’s actually the bigger picture of meaningful relationships and good health that allow us to find long lasting happiness and life satisfaction. In the end, it won’t matter how much we had or didn’t have, but rather how you’ve impacted others and how others have impacted you.

I’ll leave you with two quotes:

At the end it’s not about what you have or even what you’ve accomplished. It’s about who you’ve lifted up, who you’ve made better. It’s about what you’ve given back” – Denzel Washington

“People will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel” – Maya Angelou

I hope you have a great weekend,



Gratitude Journaling 101

You might have heard me talk about gratitude journaling a couple of times already, but what really is it and how do you do it?

Gratitude journaling is a form of mindfulness practice that centres on acknowledging the wonderful, positive things in your life. It can help retrain and reprogram any negative thoughts and emotions. Many of us experience daily stress from work, multiple responsibilities, and unexpected events, making it easy to get pulled into a cycle of negative thinking, more stress, and unhappiness. Keeping a daily gratitude journal can help deter negative thoughts and emotions, and instead being focus into channeling the positive thoughts and experiences present in your everyday life.

Starting a gratitude journal doesn’t have to be daunting at all. Simply set aside a small journal for which you will only write your positive thoughts and experiences- no negativity here. Begin by documenting anything you are grateful for, it can be a small list of things, or you can even create a story around a few specific positive occurrences. For instance, perhaps today you’re grateful for someone holding the door for you, a stranger saying hello, the warm sun, or even your pet. Think about a few things you are blessed to have in your life or an experience that made you smile today, and just write about it. There are no set rules or restrictions, you’re free to write as much or as little as you like. It also helps to have a set time of day to build consistency. Early morning when you first wake up, or in the evening before you go to sleep can be the perfect way to either start or end your day with gratitude.

So what are the benefits of regularly expressing gratitude?
  • A study from Harvard University explains that when a group of individuals wrote in a gratitude journal for 10 weeks, they reported feeling more optimistic and satisfied with their lives, and even had fewer visits to the doctor’s office! (Compared to people who focused on their source of aggravation).
  • Research on positive psychology suggests that gratitude is strongly associated with greater happiness, helps people feel more positive emotions, appreciate good experiences, improve their health, deal with adversity, and build stronger relationships.
  • Recent studies have also shown that the more often you practice gratitude, the more you stimulate neural pathways that increase serotonin and dopamine- the same pathways that antidepressants use in your brain! By regularly stimulating these pathways through gratitude, we make them stronger, and allow the brain to quickly shift into a positive mindset and search for positive ways of thinking when encountering a problem.

Every day we have the choice to practice gratitude and express appreciation for life and everything in it. This week, I challenge you to give gratitude journaling a try.

Let me know how it goes!

Stay well,


Mid-week Motivation

We’re halfway through the week! Who else is feeling like time is passing by much too slow? 🙋‍♀️

While we often complain about how we don’t have time for a lot of things, for many people now, life in quarantine most definitely allows for a much needed slowdown from our busy on-the-go life. Use this opportunity to take a rest from your usual routine, and dive into those things you’ve been putting off for some time.

Now is the perfect time to focus on yourself, because only you can create your own happiness. Is there something you’ve always wanted to try but not had the chance to? How about starting a new book, learning a new language, creating new recipes, maybe starting your own blog? Take this state of social isolation to indulge in something great for yourself.

Here are a few additional inspirational quotes to brighten up your day and stimulate some mindful thinking…

“Today choose to be all you, not hold anything back, not compromise by trying to fit in, not to minimize your greatness so that others feel comfortable in your presence. Do you. Stand in your authenticity.” – Lisa Nichols

“It’s really important that you feel good. Because this feeling good is what goes out as a signal to the Universe and starts to attract more of itself to you. So the more you can feel good, the more you will attract the things that keep bringing you up higher and higher.” – Joe Vitale

“Everyone fears failure at one point or another. But what’s important is to acknowledge that this fear is a limiting belief holding you back from accomplishing your goals and dreams.” – Natalie Ledwell

“Learn to accept both the good and the bad that falls on your plate with grace. Because everything in life happens for you, not to you. Everything happens at the right moment, neither too soon nor too late. For everything you lose, you gain something else. And for everything you gain, you lose something else. You don’t have to appreciate it, but it’s just easier if you do.” – Mary Ann

Wishing everyone a lovely Wednesday.



Creating a Life you Desire

Do any of you ever dread waking up to that jolting alarm clock in the morning? Then hit snooze just a few more times before convincing yourself to get up? I’ve definitely had my share of those days. Even though I know how important it is to be productive and get an early start to the day, the temptation of staying cuddled up in warm blankets sometimes gets the best of me.

It’s hard to always wake up motivated, happy, and energized to tackle the tasks of your work day. It’s hard to always find your inner drive to propel yourself towards reaching your goals. But with practice, it’s possible to begin changing our current habits and lifestyle to one that we desire.

Firstly, recognize.

Recognize that there is something in your current routine that you’d like to improve upon. There’s no need for any judgment or guilt, simply see this as an area in your life that is no longer aligned with your goals and that which needs to be re-evaluated to help you achieve being the best you.

Next, visualize.

You might think it’s crazy, but in fact many of the most successful people in the world like Oprah, Bill Gates, famous athletes and musicians all use a form of visualization to help them embody their goals. Imagine yourself finally reaching your goals and living the life you desire. What does it look like? What does it feel like? What emotions are you feeling? Visualize what’s around you, the sights, smells, and sounds to fully immerse your mind in that moment. Remind yourself often of this vision and keep an open mind to how you’ll get there.

Initiate action.

Building success starts with a strong foundation. Take active steps in cultivating a grateful, positive, and resilient mind on which prosperity may grow. Something I’ve recently started, and have found to be very beneficial in creating a healthy mindset, is a gratitude journal. Every morning or night, I write 5 things I’m grateful for. Gratitude puts you in a state of abundance, where you’re able to focus on all the amazing things that are already in your life. This will allow more amazing things to come your way! Try noticing 5 different things you are grateful for everyday and feel uplifted with the blessings around you.

Practice persistence.

This means regularly practicing visualization, gratefulness, reaching out and accepting opportunities, and not loosing sight of your goals. Every day is a new day to get closer to who and where you want to be. Don’t give up and lose hope if things don’t immediately go your way. Worry less about how you’ll exactly get there, and focus more on what it is that you truly want to accomplish. A positive, open mind will lead you to great possibilities and reveal strength and resilience you may never know you had.

Keep smiling.

Enjoy every day as you work to accomplish your dreams. Start with a smile every morning- even if it seems unnatural at first. The mere act of smiling can subconsciously emulate the feeling of happiness, which in turn will make you believe you are truly happy, even if you’re not sure of the reason why! Learn to smile more, and I’m sure it will make your journey that much more enjoyable.

So overall, if you’re thinking about creating a life you desire but not sure where to start, my advice to you is to: recognize where you are, visualize where you want to be, take action, practice persistence, and keep smiling along the way. Eventually, instead of dreading that alarm clock, perhaps you will wake up feeling grateful, happy, and ready to take on a new day.



Staying Active while Social Distancing

The current COVID-19 pandemic seems to be quickly turning our lives upside down, especially with government authorities encouraging social distancing and social isolation. While we are all obliged to do our part in ‘flattening the curve’ of disease spread, it can take a toll on our mental and physical health staying inside all day and being physically inactive. Recognizing that we might not be able to enjoy our usual types of physical activity, I’ve compiled a few ideas to help you stay active and engaged during this difficult time.

  1. Take a walk in nature
    • A recent study by Cornell University (February 2020) explains that spending time in nature can positively affect your psychological health, reducing the effects of day-to-day physical and mental stress. In as little as 10 minutes, college students reported to feel happier, showed signs of improved focus, and improved blood pressure and heart rate.
    • Regularly walking for aerobic exercise can also lower your risk of heart disease, benefit those with chronic conditions, and reduce pain.
    • Consider taking part in this “nature therapy” a couple times a week by going for a hike or working on spring gardening.
    • Just make sure to keep a safe distance from others as we continue to take precaution against the pandemic with social distancing.
  2. Take advantage of online workout videos
    • There is an abundance of free fitness resources online!
    • Simply search for “lower body workout”, “core exercises”, “seated chair workout”, or anything that interests you, and there’ll be plenty of options for you to choose and try out.
    • Many fitness centres are now offering free live-streaming workout classes due to the coronavirus outbreak. Big name gyms such as Orangetheory, Crunch Fitness, Lifetime Fitness, etc. are providing you with an opportunity to have a great home-workout.
  3. Take up a yoga practice
    • If you’re feeling stressed, it’s so important to stretch out those tense muscles! Why not make yoga a regular part of your daily routine?
    • If you’re new to yoga, there are amazing yoga videos on youtube that range from beginners to advanced levels. One of my favourites is Yoga with Adriene, as she does a really nice job of making each yoga session engaging and interesting. There are also 30-day yoga bundles available so you can stay dedicated with one yoga video every day- and it’s all free!

Hopefully I’ve inspired you to stay active and try at least one of these ideas today. Remember that by taking care of your body and mind, you will be better able to deal with unexpected, stressful situations that may require flexibility and resilience.

Take care,